Regardless of the operation – flying over the mountains, flying in canyons, or flying near ridges - always remain in a position where you can turn to lowering terrain. This requires a 45-degree angle approach to the terrain.
When flying upslope terrain, do not fly beyond the point of no return. This is the point (approximately 500- feet AGL) where, if the power is reduced to idle, the airplane can still turn around without impacting the terrain.
On a short runway, if 71 percent of the takeoff speed is obtained at the halfway point, the airplane will takeoff in the space remaining.
Never enter a canyon if there is not room to turn around.
Regardless of altitude, always fly the approach for landing at the normal sea-level approach indicated airspeed for the airplane; not slower and not faster. A 10- percent increase in approach speed causes a 21-percent increase in landing distance.
Thoroughly study weather trends and conditions before takeoff. Delay the flight during marginal weather.
Approach ridges and mountains at a 45-degree angle to allow an escape route if strong turbulence or downdrafts are encountered
Do not thermal shock (power-off descents) or detune (rapid throttle movements) the engine.
Prepare an emergency survival kit and keep it in the airplane where it is accessible.
Avoid becoming complacent. Do not fly by rote, ignoring the warning signs of weather, terrain or wind.